石文静.论核安全风险治理的法律路径[J].,2020,(5):10-18
论核安全风险治理的法律路径
Research on the Legal Path of Nuclear Security Risk Management
投稿时间:2020-06-19  
DOI:
中文关键词:  核安全  风险治理  有效沟通  多重监管  严格责任
English Keywords:nuclear safety  risk management  effective communication  multiple oversight  strict liability (
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作者单位
石文静 烟台大学 法学院,山东 烟台 264005 
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中文摘要:
      为确保核安全,预防核事故,我国应确立“敞开沟通—多重监管—严格责任”三位一体的核安全风险治理的法律路径。一是要敞开沟通渠道。细化核安全信息公开透明原则,实现实时、全面的信息公开;核电企业之间加强合作与经验交流,政府、企业与民众之间敞开沟通。二是要加强多重监管。企业内部实现实时监管、灵活监管;核安全局等监督管理部门做到全方位监管;在全国人大常委会下设核安全监管专门委员会,推进立法与监管;健全舆论监督机制。三是要建立严格周密的刑事、行政、民事责任体系。在刑事责任方面加大惩罚力度,发挥刑事责任的预防效用;在行政责任方面要贯彻责任倒查与终身追究;在民事损害赔偿部分坚持核设施营运单位的经济管道责任模式,同时扩张追偿权的效力范围,确立完善的保险分担机制。
English Summary:
      In order to ensure nuclear safety and prevent nuclear accidents, China should establish the legal path of “open communication - multiple supervision - strict responsibility” in nuclear security risk governance. First, strictly implement the principle of nuclear information disclosure and transparency, and realize real-time and all-round information disclosure mode; Nuclear power enterprises should strengthen cooperation and experience sharing, and the government, enterprises and the public should keep open communication. Second, strengthen multiple supervision; Realize real-time supervision and flexible supervision within enterprises; The Nuclear Safety Administration and other supervisory and regulatory authorities should exercise all-round supervision and control; A special committee on Nuclear Safety Supervision should be set up under the NPC Standing Committee to promote legislation and supervision; And improve the supervision mechanism by public opinion. Third, establish a strict and thorough criminal, administrative and civil liability system, improve the degree of accountability for criminal responsibility, increase the intensity of punishment; Carry out backtracking and lifelong investigation on administrative responsibility; The Economic channeling liability model of nuclear facility operators should be adhered to in the civil damage compensation, while the recoverable situation should be increased and a sound insurance sharing mechanism should be established.
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