和建伟.马克思与但丁人文精神比较[J].,2020,(3):50-58
马克思与但丁人文精神比较
投稿时间:2020-02-05  
DOI:
中文关键词:  但丁  马克思  批判精神  理想主义  人文精神
English Keywords:Dante  Marx  critical spirit  idealism  humanistic spirit (
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作者单位
和建伟 安徽科技学院 人文学院,安徽 凤阳 233100 
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中文摘要:
      但丁的人文主义思想主要表现为强烈的批判精神、积极的理想主义以及丰富的人本思想。但丁终生对意大利乃至西欧的社会变化与市民思想行为进行尖锐评判,并强烈批判教会腐败,愤怒谴责贵族的堕落与政治纷争;在早年从政与后期流亡途中,但丁通过系列著述与勇敢斗争,展示了追求和平统一的理想;但丁将人们关注的重点从对上帝和天堂的盲目崇拜转向对世俗生活的赞美,充分肯定人的情感、理性与尊严,其人本主义思想明显超越了中世纪晚期的宗教神学。马克思最喜爱但丁,终生以“下地狱”决心投身政治经济学研究。不过,马克思更关注普通劳动者,其共产主义理想以解放全人类为目标,超越了但丁仅关注社会上层的狭隘性;与但丁晚年的消沉保守相比,马克思理想更为坚定;马克思对资本主义生产方式的批判持续终生,整体上突破了但丁人文主义思想的宗教束缚与神学局限,表现出更为全面彻底的人文精神。
English Summary:
      The humanist thoughts of Dante reflected his severe critical spirit, positive idealism, and profound humanism. Dante severely denounced the social changes and citizen’s thoughts and behaviors in Italy and Western European countries, corruption of the church, corruption and political disputes of the noblemen. Throughout his earlier political career to later exile days, Date showed his dream of peace and reunification through a series of classic writings and brave struggles. Shifting from the idolatry of god and heaven to the praise of worldly life, Dante fully affirmed human affection, rationality and dignity, so his humanistic thoughts were far beyond the religious theology in the late Middle Ages. Marx liked Date best, so he devoted his lifelong time in the study of political economy by the hell-like decision. However, Marx focused more on ordinary laborers, and his communist ideals were to liberate the whole mankind, surpassing Date’s concern to the upper social class only. Compared with Dante’ depressing conservatism, Marx firmly stuck to his ideals and he criticized the capitalist mode of production throughout his life, broke through Dante’s religious bondage and theology, so Marx’s humanistic spirits were more comprehensive.
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