刘志靖,伊纪民.迎拒之间:论曾纪泽对公法的认识及运用[J].,2020,(2):76-87
迎拒之间:论曾纪泽对公法的认识及运用
Between Acceptance and Rejection:On Zeng Jize's Understanding and Application of Public Law
投稿时间:2020-02-19  
DOI:
中文关键词:  曾纪泽  国际法  公法外交  进步性  局限性
English Keywords:Zeng Jize  International law  Public law diplomacy  Progressiveness  Limitations
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作者单位
刘志靖 湘潭大学 哲学与历史文化学院, 湖南 湘潭 411105 
伊纪民 湘潭大学 哲学与历史文化学院, 湖南 湘潭 411105 
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中文摘要:
      曾纪泽公法维权思想是在全方位扩展的资本主义文明与落后的中国古典文明的激烈冲撞中产生的。曾纪泽对国际公法的多面认识具体表现在:一方面肯定公法的现实意义与精神意义,所以主张接纳公法;另一方面,曾纪泽并不迷信公法,而是主张有选择地援用公法,最明显的例证就是曾纪泽并无意将公法作为处理与藩属国关系的准则。其对公法既承认又保留的迎拒心理反映了近代知识界对国际法是否可恃的矛盾心态,是多种因素共同作用的结果。一则鉴于中国国势日弱及国际公法在中西交涉中的重要地位,因此加强了对公法的重视、认识及运用;二是源于对世界强权政治的实质性认识,使曾纪泽对列强主导下的公法有所保留;三则其对包括延续数千年之久的宗藩朝贡体制在内的中国的制度、法律、文化仍具有强烈信心。曾纪泽对公法的多面认识及灵活运用既顺应了时代发展的脉络,具有实用性,也受传统思想、个人能力及时代主流的桎梏,存在诸多局限性。其中的经验教训对当代中国外交具有一定的借鉴意义。
English Summary:
      Zeng Jize's Thought of Safeguarding Rights by Public Law was produced in the collision of all-round expansion of capitalist civilization and backward Chinese classical civilization. Zeng Jize's multifaceted understanding of public international law are shown as follows:first, he affirmed the practical and spiritual significance of public law and advocated to accept public law; Second, he was not superstitious about public law but invoked it. The most obvious example is that Zeng Jize had no intention to use public law as a criterion for dealing with the relationship with vassal states. His attitude of both acceptance and rejection towards public law reflects modern intelligentsia's contradictory mentality, namely, whether international law could be relied on, which resulted from multiple factors. First, in consideration of declining China's national power and important role of public international law in negotiation between China and the West, he strengthened the attention, understanding and application of public law; Second, because of substantive understanding of world power politics, he reserved public law under the domination of foreign powers; third, he had strong confidence in China's system, law and culture including the patriarchal-vassal system that lasted for thousands of years. Zeng Jize's multifaceted understanding and flexible application of public international law conforms to the development of the times, which is practical, and also is limited by traditional thoughts, personal capability and mainstream of the times, which has many limitations. The experience and lesson can be used for reference in contemporary China's diplomacy.
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